The Information in Living Structures and
the Death of Materialism
Materialist philosophy lies at the basis of the theory of evolution.
Materialism rests on the supposition that everything that exists is matter.
According to this philosophy, matter has existed since eternity, will
continue to exist forever, and there is nothing but matter. In order to
provide support for their claim, materialists use a logic called "reductionism."
This is the idea that things which are not observable can also be explained
by material causes.
To make matters clearer, let us take the example of the human mind. It
is evident that the mind cannot be touched or seen. Moreover, it has no
centre in the human brain. This situation unavoidably leads us to the
conclusion that the mind is a concept beyond matter. Therefore, the being
which we refer to as "I," who thinks, loves, gets nervous, worries, takes
pleasure or feels pain, is not a material being in the same way as a sofa,
a table or a stone.
Materialists, however, claim that mind is "reducible
to matter." According to the materialist claim, thinking, loving, worrying
and all our mental activities are nothing but chemical reactions taking
place between the atoms in the brain. Loving someone is a chemical reaction
in some cells in our brain, and fear is another. The famous materialist
philosopher Karl Vogt stressed this logic with his famous words "Just
as the liver secretes gall, so do our brains secrete thought."(Encyclopędia Britannica, "Modern Materialism") Gall, however, is matter, whereas there is no evidence that thought is.
Reductionism is a logical deduction. However, a logical deduction can
be based on solid grounds or on shaky ones. For this reason, the question
we need to ask is: What happens when reductionism, the basic logic of
materialism, is compared to scientific data?
19th century materialist scientists and thinkers thought that the answer
would be that "science verifies reductionism." 20th century science, however,
has revealed a very different picture.
One of the most salient feature of this picture is "information," which
is present in nature and can never be reduced to matter.
Matter Cannot Produce Information
We earlier mentioned that there is incredibly comprehensive information
contained in the DNA of living things. Something as small as a hundred
thousandth of a millimetre across contains a sort of "data bank" that
specifies all the physical details of the body of a living thing. Moreover,
the body also contains a system that reads this information, interprets
it and carries out "production" in line with it. In all living cells,
the information in the DNA is "read" by various enzymes, and proteins
are produced according to this information. This system makes possible
the production of millions of proteins every second, of just the required
type for just the places where they are needed in our bodies. In this
way, dead eye cells are replaced by living ones, and old blood cells by
At this point, let us consider the claim of materialism: Is it possible
that the information in DNA could be reduced to matter, as materialists
suggest? Or, in other words, can it be accepted that DNA is merely a collection
of matter, and the information it contains came about as a result of the
random interactions of such pieces of matter?
All the scientific research, experiments and observations carried out
in the 20th century show that the answer to this question is a definite
"No." The director of the German Federal Physics and Technology Institute,
Prof. Dr. Werner Gitt has this to say on the issue:
A coding system always entails a nonmaterial intellectual
process. A physical matter cannot produce an information code. All experiences
show that every piece of creative information represents some mental effort
and can be traced to a personal idea-giver who exercised his own free
will, and who is endowed with an intelligent mind.... There is no known
law of nature, no known process and no known sequence of events which
can cause information to originate by itself in matter...(Werner Gitt. In the Beginning Was Information. CLV, Bielefeld, Germany, p. 107, 141)
Matter which contains information is
ordered by the possessor of that information. The information in
DNA has been designed and created by God, the possessor of matchless
Werner Gitt's words summarise the conclusions of "information theory,"
which has been developed in the last 50 years and is accepted as a part
of thermodynamics. Information theory investigates the origin and nature
of the information in the universe. The conclusion reached by the information
theoreticians as a result of long studies is that "Information is something
different from matter. It can never be reduced to matter. The origin of
information and physical matter must be investigated separately."
For instance, let us think of the source of a book. A book consists of
paper, ink, and the information it contains. Paper and ink are material
elements. Their source is again matter: Paper is made of cellulose, and
ink of certain chemicals. However, the information in the book is nonmaterial
and cannot have a material source. The source of the information in each
book is the mind of the person who wrote it.
Moreover, this mind determines how paper and ink will be used. A book
initially forms in the mind of the writer. The writer builds a chain of
logic in his mind, and orders his sentences. As a second step, he puts
them into a material form, which is to say that he translates the information
in his mind into letters, using a pen, a typewriter or a computer. Later,
these letters are printed in a publishing house and take the shape of
a book made up of paper and ink.
We can therefore state this general conclusion: "If physical matter contains
information, then that matter must have been designed by a mind that possessed
the information in question. First there is the mind. That mind translates
the information it possesses into matter, which constitutes the act of
The Origin of the Information in Nature
When we apply this scientific definition of information to nature, a
very important result ensues. This is because nature overflows with an
immense body of information (as, for example, in the case of DNA), and
since this information cannot be reduced to matter, it therefore comes
from a source beyond matter.
One of the foremost advocates of the theory of evolution, George C. Williams,
admits this reality, which most materialists and evolutionists are reluctant
to see. Williams has strongly defended materialism for years, but in an
article he wrote in 1995, he states the incorrectness of the materialist
(reductionist) approach which holds everything is matter:
Evolutionary biologists have failed to realize that
they work with two more or less incommensurable domains: that of information
and that of matter. These two domains will never be brought together in
any kind of the sense usually implied by the term "reductionism.." The
gene is a package of information, not an object... In biology, when you're
talking about things like genes and genotypes and gene pools, you're talking
about information, not physical objective reality... This dearth of shared
descriptors makes matter and information two separate domains of existence,
which have to be discussed separately, in their own terms. (George C. Williams. The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution. (ed. John Brockman). New York, Simon & Schuster, 1995. p. 42-43)
Therefore, contrary to the supposition of materialists, the source of
the information in nature cannot be matter itself. The source of information
is not matter but a superior Wisdom beyond matter. This Wisdom existed
prior to matter. Matter was brought into existence, given form, and organised