Cells: Building Blocks of Humans
The fertilization of an egg by the sperm means the beginning of a new
human life. Millions of sperm compete to fertilize the egg, although only
one of them will manage to do so. Yet the race is not left to chance or
coincidence, since every phase of it has been created by God with a fixed
outcome. God reveals this truth in a holy verse:
We created you, so why do you not confirm the truth?
Have you thought about the sperm that you ejaculate? Is it you who create
it or are We the Creator? (Qur'an, 56:57-59)
When the father's sperm cell fertilizes the mother's egg cell, the parents'
genes come together to determine all the physical characteristics of the
baby that will eventually be born. Each of the thousands of different
genes has a particular function. It is the genes that determine hair and
eye colour, facial shape, and countless details in the skeleton, internal
organs, brain, nerves and muscles.
When the sperm unites with the egg, a cell forms-the basis of a new human
being-and along with that cell, the first copy of the DNA molecule also
forms, which will carry that person's genetic code inside each cell all
through his life.
In order for that first cell, the fertilized egg, to turn into a human
being, it needs to multiply, and in the knowledge of that, it begins to
divide, with a remarkable consciousness. That consciousness reveals itself
in the next phase. As the cells divide, they begin to grow different and
go to those parts of the body where they are needed. Instead of a mass
of flesh composed of exactly the same cells, some of them turn into eye
cells and go where they are needed, others form heart cells and go to
the chest, and still others become skin cells and cover the whole body.
All the cells multiply as much as is needed for the particular tissue
they will construct, and start joining together to give the tissues the
structure they need, thus beginning to create different organs.
The coordination of this differentiation and structuring is made possible
by the DNA molecule. We must not lose sight of the fact that DNA is neither
a biochemist working in laboratories full of the very latest equipment,
nor a super-computer able to perform trillions of calculations a second.
DNA is a molecule made up of atoms such as carbon, phosphorous, nitrogen,
hydrogen and oxygen.
Let us now consider the following facts: The trillions of cells in the
human body multiply by dividing. Yet different genes in different cells
are activated at different times, and that allows cells to differentiate.
To put it another way, every cell that divides and multiplies after the
first cell contains a complete set of genetic information. In other words,
every single cell possesses the ability to produce heart muscle, skin,
red blood cells or any other tissue in the body. Even though each cell
contains a complete genetic description of the whole body, only some genes
are active at different times in different organs. For instance, every
cell contains the codes for the development and functioning of the kidneys,
yet only the relevant genes are active in that organ, at certain times
in the development phase. Similarly, certain enzymes, glucose-6-phospate
for instance, are found mainly in the liver. Although all the cells of
all other organs also possess the description of this protein, they never
produce it. Eye cells never do; for example, they just make what is necessary
for the eye: nerve cells will carry messages to and from the brain and
the organs, liver cells will purify toxins, and fat cells store food for
times when food is hard to find. None of them ever commit the error of
producing stomach enzymes. So who carries out this flawless division of
labor? Who orders the cells to specialise in different areas after they
have divided and multiplied? Moreover, how do all the cells come by the
consciousness to obey, and whom do they listen to while working with such
flawless discipline and organization? It is quite clear that none of these
are coincidental systems, formed as the result of yet other coincidences.
This flawlessness does not end with the fact that cells appear in the
right place and at the right time, and bring the right genes into play.
Cells also have to be present at the appropriate stage of life, and in
the right quantities. Our "upkeep" genes work the whole time in almost
all our cells. Other genes only function in some cells at a critical period
in life, working for just a few hours before going into dormant mode.
For instance, milk production is accelerated by genes during breastfeeding.
Existing information is activated at the right time, in the right amount,
at the right place. Evolutionists' use of "coincidence" to explain this
conscious, planned, determined, calculated and intelligent direction and
use of the billions of pieces of information concealed in DNA is really
no explanation at all. No system in the world, not even the simplest,
can come about by coincidence, so it is utterly illogical to see the extraordinarily
planned and organised events that go on at the level of microscopic space
as coincidences. In fact, evolutionists admit that they are far from offering
an explanation for this differentiation and division of labour in cells.
The evolutionist microbiologist Professor Ali Demirsoy makes this confession:
In essence, no satisfactory explanation for the development
of groups of cells with very different structures and functions has yet
been provided. (Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalytym ve Evrim, p.158)
All these extraordinary events can clearly not be accounted for in terms
of coincidences or being the work of the cells themselves. So, who directs
these developments that occur in the cell, creates them for a particular
purpose, and possesses the intelligence and power to introduce billions
of pieces of information into a tiny space invisible to the naked eye?